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Restraining Orders in Divorce Proceedings

There are times when the reason for a divorce is due to threatening behaviour or abuse in the marriage. Domestic  abuse is defined as a pattern of physical or sexual violence or controlling behaviour in a relationship. It may involve physical, emotional, psychological, financial or sexual abuse and can include violent behaviour or subtle control that makes the victim feel worthless, deprives them of money or prevents them from leaving the family home.

Men and women can both be victims of domestic violence and in these types of serious cases, it can be necessary to consider an injunction. An injunction is a court order that requires someone to do or not do something.

Under the Family Law Act, there are different types of injunctions available that can help clients to gain protection in domestic abuse cases.

Occupation order

This deals with the family home situation; if you consider living with your partner is unsafe, an occupation order may be the best course of action. Essentially, it specifies who is allowed to live in the family home and can prevent your partner from entering the surrounding area. Anyone who is legally associated to their abuser and has property rights to the home may apply for an occupation order. The court will apply a ‘balance of harm’ test when determining whether to make the injunction.

Depending on the case, if the court accepts the abuser has used or threatened physical violence, then a power of arrest may be attached to the order. Injunctions do work differently depending on individual circumstances and evidence will be required to demonstrate there has been a level of harassment to warrant the intervention.

Non-molestation order

This injunction aims to protect you and your children from threatening behaviour and to ensure your health, safety and well-being. You can also obtain an exclusion zone around your home and place of work. Under new legislation, it’s a criminal offence to breach a non-molestation order.

Restraining order

If the case ends up in the criminal courts, the courts can issue a restraining order to protect the victims of crime. A restraining order may: prevent a person from harassing and communicating with you by phone, text or email; restrict them from behaving in a certain way; prevent them from going to certain places such as your home or workplace; restrict them from approaching you. Breach of a restraining order is a criminal offence.

It’s important to get the right help for your situation and discuss the different options with an experienced family law professional. Here at Harrogate Family Law, Andrew Meehan is accredited as a Resolution specialist in domestic violence and can offer confidential legal advice to clients facing these difficult and challenging circumstances.

Contact us on 01423 594680 or email enquiries@harrogatefamilylaw.co.uk

 

Andrew Meehan is individually recommended for family law by both Chambers UK and the Legal 500. He is also a Resolution accredited specialist solicitor for divorce cases involving complex financial and property matters.

This article has been prepared with the aim of providing general information only and does not constitute legal advice in relation to any particular situation. While we aim to ensure that the information is correct at the date on which it is added to the website, the legal position can change frequently, and content will not always be updated following any relevant changes. In addition, everyone’s circumstances are different and this article is provided by way of general information only and must not be relied upon. If you require legal advice on a family law issue, please feel free to contact us by emailing enquiries@harrogatefamilylaw.co.uk. Harrogate Family Law accepts no liability whatsoever in contract, tort or otherwise for any loss or damage caused by or arising directly or indirectly in connection with any use or reliance on the contents of any part of our website, except to the extent that such liability cannot be excluded by law.

Exam Success for Ursula

As part of our commitment to invest in our team, we are pleased to be supporting our PA and credit controller Ursula Herbert through her AAT accounting exams and her success so far means she is on track for a distinction.

After studying hard for the first two modules Ursula has just been awarded 97% in Bookkeeping Transactions and 92% in Bookkeeping Controls.

The Foundation Certificate in Accounting covers the basics of finance administration, double entry bookkeeping, costing and using accounting software.

Ursula said: “I am already putting my learning into practice in my day-to-day role at Harrogate Family Law and really value having been given the opportunity to develop my skills and work towards an industry recognised qualification.”

Andrew Meehan, managing director of Harrogate Family Law, said: “As a firm we are keen to develop our team and provide opportunities for them to work towards professional qualifications where possible.

“Ursula’s hard work and dedication has really paid off and she thoroughly deserves her excellent marks.

“She has exceeded the requirements in the majority of tasks in the exams she has taken so far and is well on track for a distinction overall. We wish her every success in her remaining modules.”

 

Why all good marriages should start with a pre-nup

Pre-nuptial agreements may not be one of the most romantic topics of conversation for couples planning a wedding but recent research has found that more than 40% of single men and women think a pre-nup is a good idea. Couples now look on them as a practical step before entering into marriage.

What are the benefits of a pre-nup?

It could make your marriage stronger

A pre-nup gives couples an opportunity to look objectively at their personal, financial and business interests at the start of a relationship. Having an open and honest discussion at the outset avoids arguments further down the line and manages expectations. In this respect, a pre-nup can actually strengthen a marriage.

It avoids conflict later on

A pre-nup doesn’t mean couples are anticipating the failure of their marriage. Just as they might be looking at home insurance – and possibly wedding insurance – a pre-nup is a safeguard that could make things easier and cheaper if the marriage does break down.  Decisions can be made with a cool head at this stage, whereas once problems develop in a marriage, negotiation can become difficult and resolution can be time consuming and costly.

It could protect your wealth

Pre-nups are popular with couples who have already accrued property, wealth or business interests. A pre-nup can set out how all the assets would be divided if the marriage were to break down and can help to protect against future claims.  Those with business interests approach pre-nups from the perspective of controlling risk and minimising the damaging effect that disputes could have on the business.

How to draft a pre-nup

We’ll arrange an initial meeting to discuss your personal situation, the issues affecting you and your partner and how marriage will impact on ownership of assets. There are a number of pitfalls to avoid when drawing up a pre-nuptial agreement and we’ll outline these so that you take all the right steps to make sure your document has the best chance of standing up in court. This is one reason why DIY pre-nups and online forms should be avoided. Attempting to draw up a pre-nup without specialist advice from a family lawyer could put your assets and future earnings at risk.

Ideally the pre-nup should be dealt with well before your marriage so that you can agree it, sign it, put it away and get on with enjoying the build up to your big day. Both parties should have independent legal advice and neither should feel under pressure to sign.

Pre-nups are particularly useful for anyone who has been married before and in such cases they can be used to safeguard assets that have been built up for existing children’s inheritances. They are also often used when one party has already inherited wealth from family.

Even when both parties see the benefit of a pre-nup, the negotiations still need to be handled sensitively. We recognise this and, because we have plenty of experience in this area, we’ll make sure you feel comfortable with everything before signing.

Andrew Meehan is individually recommended for family law by both Chambers UK and the Legal 500. He is also a Resolution accredited specialist solicitor for divorce cases involving complex financial and property matters.

This article has been prepared with the aim of providing general information only and does not constitute legal advice in relation to any particular situation. While we aim to ensure that the information is correct at the date on which it is added to the website, the legal position can change frequently, and content will not always be updated following any relevant changes. In addition, everyone’s circumstances are different and this article is provided by way of general information only and must not be relied upon. If you require legal advice on a family law issue, please feel free to contact us by emailing enquiries@harrogatefamilylaw.co.uk. Harrogate Family Law accepts no liability whatsoever in contract, tort or otherwise for any loss or damage caused by or arising directly or indirectly in connection with any use or reliance on the contents of any part of our website, except to the extent that such liability cannot be excluded by law.

Spousal Maintenance – How Long Can a Wife Expect to Be Financially Supported by her Ex Husband?

A husband who is making regular spousal maintenance payments to his wife will understandably question why he is still expected to pay her regular amounts of money when she has moved a new partner in and no longer seems to be having to manage on her own.

What is spousal maintenance?  

Spousal maintenance is a regular sum of money that is agreed as part of a financial settlement between divorcing parties when one partner has no income or has much lower earnings than the other.

In some cases the agreement will involve regular payments for a set period of time, to give the other partner time to get on their feet financially and become self-supporting. There are also situations where the arrangement is left open, for example when a wife has given up her career to bring up children and is now at a disadvantage on the labour market and unlikely to be able to support herself.

What happens to spousal maintenance when the recipient remarries or starts cohabiting?

Spousal maintenance stops once the recipient remarries. However, if the recipient is cohabiting with a new partner it does not automatically mean that spousal maintenance will no longer be paid.

If you are paying spousal maintenance and believe that your ex-spouse’s financial circumstances have changed as a result of a new partner sharing the expenses, you can apply to the courts for a reassessment. This also applies if your own circumstances change and you are struggling to keep up with payments.

As well as being required to establish that your ex-wife and her new partner are actually living together under the same roof, you will also need to demonstrate that it has had an impact on her personal circumstances and that she no longer requires the level of financial support she once did. Your ex-wife may claim that the new relationship is in its early stages and might not last, or that her new partner cannot afford to support her. However, if the new partner is contributing to household expenses you may be able to argue that the financial situation upon which the original agreement was based is no longer valid.

To find out more about spousal maintenance and how to request a reassessment due to changes in circumstances, contact Harrogate Family Law on 01423 594 680.

 

Andrew Meehan is individually recommended for family law by both Chambers UK and the Legal 500. He is also a Resolution accredited specialist solicitor for divorce cases involving complex financial and property matters.

This article has been prepared with the aim of providing general information only and does not constitute legal advice in relation to any particular situation. While we aim to ensure that the information is correct at the date on which it is added to the website, the legal position can change frequently, and content will not always be updated following any relevant changes. In addition, everyone’s circumstances are different and this article is provided by way of general information only and must not be relied upon. If you require legal advice on a family law issue, please feel free to contact us by emailing enquiries@harrogatefamilylaw.co.uk. Harrogate Family Law accepts no liability whatsoever in contract, tort or otherwise for any loss or damage caused by or arising directly or indirectly in connection with any use or reliance on the contents of any part of our website, except to the extent that such liability cannot be excluded by law.

 

 

Is My Husband Entitled to a Share of My Inheritance When We Divorce

There are a number of factors that can help you ring fence inheritance during divorce proceedings. Inheritance can include property, money, a business or valuable heirlooms such as art and antiques.

If inherited money was bequeathed to you as an individual and has been held in its entirety in a separate account, it is likely to be excluded from financial negotiations and will be retained by you over and above any settlement that is agreed. However, each case will be decided on its merits and it is advisable to seek the advice of a family solicitor to find out how your specific circumstances might affect the outcome.

If the money has been held in an account that has been used for family expenses, or if a property has been transferred to joint names or used for the benefit of the family as a whole, it will be more difficult to argue that it should be protected.

Heirlooms and assets that have recently been bequeathed at the time of the divorce are more likely to be considered the sole property of the beneficiary.

Keep hold of documentation

Make sure you keep a copy of any paperwork that names you as the sole beneficiary of the inherited asset, as this may help your case.

Consider a pre-nup or post-nup

If you have received or know that you are going to receive an inheritance, a pre-nuptial agreement or post-nuptial agreement can help to shield those assets during divorce proceedings.

Maintain Separate Accounts

If you have been left a sum of money it should be held in a separate account in your sole name. Once the money has been held in a joint account it can be much more difficult to prove that it has not been used to benefit the family as a whole or to contribute to expenses such as mortgage payments, bills and home improvements.

Future inheritance

Future inheritance is unlikely to be considered as part of a divorce settlement unless the benefactor’s death is imminent and the amount substantial. If you are anticipating a sizeable inheritance in the future it would be sensible to discuss this with a family solicitor and consider a pre or post-nup agreement.

 

 

Andrew Meehan is individually recommended for family law by both Chambers UK and the Legal 500. He is also a Resolution accredited specialist solicitor for divorce cases involving complex financial and property matters.

This article has been prepared with the aim of providing general information only and does not constitute legal advice in relation to any particular situation. While we aim to ensure that the information is correct at the date on which it is added to the website, the legal position can change frequently, and content will not always be updated following any relevant changes. In addition, everyone’s circumstances are different and this article is provided by way of general information only and must not be relied upon. If you require legal advice on a family law issue, please feel free to contact us by emailing enquiries@harrogatefamilylaw.co.uk. Harrogate Family Law accepts no liability whatsoever in contract, tort or otherwise for any loss or damage caused by or arising directly or indirectly in connection with any use or reliance on the contents of any part of our website, except to the extent that such liability cannot be excluded by law.

Warning for unmarried couples over common law marriage myth

As the trend for couples to live together without marrying continues to rise, efforts are underway to make them aware that common law marriage is a myth and they are not automatically entitled to the level of legal protection that applies to married couples.

There is still a misconception that couples who share their home and finances have certain rights, whether they are married or not. This assumption is unfortunately resulting in some people being left homeless and facing financial hardship if their relationship breaks down.

When to seek advice

Ideally, couples should seek legal advice when they first move in together but it can be done later, even when they have been living under the same roof for many years and perhaps have a family together. In fact, those who are in an established relationship like this, where assets and parental responsibilities are closely interwoven, are strongly urged to take action to protect themselves.

It is simply not true that if you have lived together for a long time and have a family together you are protected under “common law marriage” and are therefore more likely to be viewed by the courts as if you were a married couple. When married couples divorce, their assets are divided fairly. When cohabitees separate they have no automatic legal rights. They are not entitled to claim financial support from their partner and they have no right to a share of their pension. As far as the family home is concerned, for married couples this is dealt with under family law and is considered as part of the joint assets whereas for unmarried couples it is dealt with under property law. That leaves people vulnerable if they have moved into a property owned by their partner or their partner’s family.

How to protect yourself

The ideal time to take action is when you first move in together. It may not be the most romantic of conversations, but it’s an important one to have. This is when you can decide how the property will be owned and how bills will be shared.

We can help you draw up a cohabitation agreement that sets out how property and assets will be divided if you split up and whether you would like to put in place any provision for future financial support. It is important to remember that you will not automatically inherit property or other assets if one of you dies and it is therefore advisable to make wills.

As family law specialists, we can help you make the right decisions now to ensure you and your family are fully protected if your relationship breaks down in the future. Everybody’s personal circumstances are different and the arrangements made by one couple may not suit another. Our experience allows us to spot any potential pitfalls and set measures in place that will provide you with the best possible financial arrangement should you end up living apart.

What to do if your relationship is ending

 The law is complex and it is recommended that you seek advice from a lawyer who specialises in advising cohabitees.  A specialist lawyer will be able to advise on all of the options available to you because these vary from the obvious to the obscure.

Read Carol Jessop’s interview on this subject on Stray FM.

 

Andrew Meehan is individually recommended for family law by both Chambers UK and the Legal 500. He is also a Resolution accredited specialist solicitor for divorce cases involving complex financial and property matters.

This article has been prepared with the aim of providing general information only and does not constitute legal advice in relation to any particular situation. While we aim to ensure that the information is correct at the date on which it is added to the website, the legal position can change frequently, and content will not always be updated following any relevant changes. In addition, everyone’s circumstances are different and this article is provided by way of general information only and must not be relied upon. If you require legal advice on a family law issue, please feel free to contact us by emailing enquiries@harrogatefamilylaw.co.uk. Harrogate Family Law accepts no liability whatsoever in contract, tort or otherwise for any loss or damage caused by or arising directly or indirectly in connection with any use or reliance on the contents of any part of our website, except to the extent that such liability cannot be excluded by law.

Can My Ex Move Away With the Children?

What happens when your ex wants to move away with the children – perhaps also with a new partner – and you object?

We’ve supported a number of clients – mothers and fathers – through this kind of situation, both when they have been concerned about a partner moving away with the kids or when they are the one wanting to move away with their family. Having advised them through their divorce, we are their first port of call when they want to embark on a new beginning in a different area, which may be several years later. Thankfully, most of our past clients understand the importance of seeking professional advice early and they usually approach us for an initial chat before broaching the subject with the other parent.

What are my rights?

If your children live with your partner and he or she wants to move to another part of England and Wales, we would advise them to seek your agreement to the move and not to simply announce that they’re leaving. If you do not agree with the proposed move, your ex may ask the court to make the decision about whether or not they should be allowed to move.

One parent does have the right to try and stop the other from moving and may seek a court order from the court to prevent it from happening. Such an order would prevent the child from moving with until the court has considered the case.

It is far better to talk to your ex first and see if you can reach an agreement by working out how your children will be able to continue to have time with both parents after the move.

What if I’m the one moving? How can I persuade the courts to let me move away with the children?

If you and your ex can’t reach an agreement amicably, you will need to demonstrate to the court that the relocation is in the best interests of the children. You might be moving for a better job or for a more financially secure future with another partner. It may be a better area that offers your children more opportunities for recreation and schooling. You could be moving to be closer to relatives, in which case the children will benefit from a wider family unit. All of these can be valid reasons and may persuade the court to find in your favour.

The court will want to make sure the children’s relationship with the other parent doesn’t suffer. That doesn’t mean it needs to stay exactly the same. It’s impractical to maintain visits every weekend when there might be a distance of several hundred miles to consider. The children will also want to build their own social life locally at the weekends and this could be hampered if they are required to travel to stay with their other parent too frequently. A good compromise can be to arrange longer stays during the school holidays so that regular, quality contact can be maintained with both parents without interfering with the children’s everyday lives.

We won’t have covered every question about the issue of relocation in this article and if you would like to talk about your own situation please pick up the phone and give us a call. Our lawyers have a great deal of expertise in this area and we can help you even if we weren’t your solicitor during your divorce. Call us on 01423 594680.

 

Andrew Meehan is individually recommended for family law by both Chambers UK and the Legal 500. He is also a Resolution accredited specialist solicitor for divorce cases involving complex financial and property matters.

This article has been prepared with the aim of providing general information only and does not constitute legal advice in relation to any particular situation. While we aim to ensure that the information is correct at the date on which it is added to the website, the legal position can change frequently, and content will not always be updated following any relevant changes. In addition, everyone’s circumstances are different and this article is provided by way of general information only and must not be relied upon. If you require legal advice on a family law issue, please feel free to contact us by emailing enquiries@harrogatefamilylaw.co.uk. Harrogate Family Law accepts no liability whatsoever in contract, tort or otherwise for any loss or damage caused by or arising directly or indirectly in connection with any use or reliance on the contents of any part of our website, except to the extent that such liability cannot be excluded by law.

Is Everything Always Split 50/50 in Divorce?

There is no set formula when it comes to splitting assets in divorce but the law provides general guidelines and gives the Courts a wide range of discretion.  The law itself (Section 25 of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973) is nearly 50 years old now but the factors set out in it are still used today. Here’s a summary:

  • The welfare of any children is always the first consideration.
  • Income, earning capacity and other financial resources which are available now or may be available in the future.
  • The expenditure that each has now and is expected to have in the future including liability for debts.
  • The standard of living enjoyed by the family before the breakdown of the marriage (although it may not be possible to divide the money between two households and retain the same standard of living).
  • Health problems or disability which may impact on earning capacity or care costs.
  • The contribution each has made to the welfare of the family, both financially and in looking after the home and children.
  • Conduct, although behaviour has to significantly impact on the financial position of the family before it is taken into account.
  • The value of any benefit, such as pensions, which is being lost as a result of the divorce.

How to prepare for financial negotiations

You will save a lot of time and money if you can do some preparation:

  • Organise all of your financial documents so that they are easily identified and in date order.
  • Apply for statements showing the current value of any pension funds.
  • Think about where you see yourself living in the future. If you need to move – how much would it cost to buy a different property and what would the purchase costs, stamp duty and moving costs be? How much can you borrow on a mortgage on your own?
  • Prepare a list of your monthly expenditure – what are you actually spending now? Include everything.  Also prepare a similar budget for the future and do a separate schedule for everything you need to pay out for your children.
  • If you are on a low income use a website like Turn 2 Us to calculate whether you will qualify for financial help from the state.
  • Use the Child Maintenance Service’s online calculator to check what your liability or entitlement for child maintenance may be.
  • If you are not currently working or working part time think about whether it is practical to get a job or increase your hours. If so, what would be able to earn? Would there be child care costs if you were working?
  • Take advice from a specialist family lawyer at an early stage. We can give you an overview of what you can expect, the options available to you to help you achieve a settlement and what to do as the next steps.

 

 

Andrew Meehan is individually recommended for family law by both Chambers UK and the Legal 500. He is also a Resolution accredited specialist solicitor for divorce cases involving complex financial and property matters.

This article has been prepared with the aim of providing general information only and does not constitute legal advice in relation to any particular situation. While we aim to ensure that the information is correct at the date on which it is added to the website, the legal position can change frequently, and content will not always be updated following any relevant changes. In addition, everyone’s circumstances are different and this article is provided by way of general information only and must not be relied upon. If you require legal advice on a family law issue, please feel free to contact us by emailing enquiries@harrogatefamilylaw.co.uk. Harrogate Family Law accepts no liability whatsoever in contract, tort or otherwise for any loss or damage caused by or arising directly or indirectly in connection with any use or reliance on the contents of any part of our website, except to the extent that such liability cannot be excluded by law.

 

 

Top Tier Ranking for HFL Founder and Team

Harrogate Family Law and its founder Andrew Meehan have both achieved the highest possible ranking for family law in the latest legal guide Chambers UK 2018.

Andrew has been ranked by Chambers UK each year since founding Harrogate Family Law seven years ago. This year’s edition describes him as “pragmatic and sensible” with a strong reputation in advising high net worth individuals on financial proceedings arising from divorce.

Harrogate Family Law is recognised by Chambers UK 2018 as a dedicated family law firm with extensive experience advising on challenging divorce and separation claims, prenuptial agreements and cases involving property portfolios and pension issues. The guide also mentions the firm’s expertise in handling cross-border children relocation work and maintenance orders.

The team is noted to be “very efficient, very cost-effective and disciplined.”

Andrew said he was delighted that the firm had been ranked as one of the best family law firms in York, Hull and the surrounding area.

“These top tier rankings for me and my team are especially welcome because they are the result of independent peer research and client feedback.

“The comments by the sources acknowledge our technical excellence as well as our commitment to client care.”

Harrogate Family Law’s ranking by Chambers follows its recent praise by Legal 500 as ‘the best in Harrogate’ for financial proceedings arising from divorce, separation and civil partnership dissolution. Legal 500 also recognised the firm’s diligence in ‘leaving no stone unturned; its very quick response times, detailed knowledge and thorough approach amounts to a first-rate level of service’.

 

Andrew Meehan is individually recommended for family law by both Chambers UK and the Legal 500. He is also a Resolution accredited specialist solicitor for divorce cases involving complex financial and property matters.

This article has been prepared with the aim of providing general information only and does not constitute legal advice in relation to any particular situation. While we aim to ensure that the information is correct at the date on which it is added to the website, the legal position can change frequently, and content will not always be updated following any relevant changes. In addition, everyone’s circumstances are different and this article is provided by way of general information only and must not be relied upon. If you require legal advice on a family law issue, please feel free to contact us by emailing enquiries@harrogatefamilylaw.co.uk. Harrogate Family Law accepts no liability whatsoever in contract, tort or otherwise for any loss or damage caused by or arising directly or indirectly in connection with any use or reliance on the contents of any part of our website, except to the extent that such liability cannot be excluded by law.

Is it possible to divorce without going to court?

No matter how bitter the divorce, few people want to have their future decided by the courts unless it is absolutely necessary and there are a number of ways to avoid going to court.

Although there are many similar issues that come up time and again when we are advising clients, no two cases are ever exactly the same and the approach that suits one couple may not suit another. That’s why we discuss a range of different approaches and advise on the best way forward according to the circumstances of each family. The steps you take in the early stages of your divorce can also have an impact on how smooth the process is. Read our article 5 things you need to know before you divorce.

Is mediation an option?

A mediator is trained to help the couple explore what is important to each of them and try to help them find a solution which they are both comfortable with.  This can be really effective if both have a willingness to try to find a compromise.  It is recommended that a family lawyer advises alongside the mediation process so that the agreement is workable and meets the needs of both parties.

What if I’d rather not negotiate over money with my spouse directly?

Many people still prefer to have their lawyers negotiate the terms of the settlement so that they don’t have to talk money with their husband or wife and they can concentrate on helping the children cope with the separation.  We will help you through the process of exchanging financial information and then discuss the possible ways in which the property, money, income and pensions can be divided so that we can put forward proposals for settlement.  We can do this through letters and emails, phone calls with the other lawyer and sometimes having a meeting with the lawyers and husband and wife so that we can discuss it all together.  It depends on what works for each individual client.

I have heard of Collaborative Family Law – what is this?

With Collaborative Law, discussions are within four way meetings with the husband and wife and their collaboratively trained lawyers. Each spouse instructs a Collaboratively trained lawyer, such as Andrew Meehan at Harrogate Family Law, and enters into a Collaborative Agreement about the process. It is a very constructive process where both the husband and wife retain a high degree of control over what is discussed and how the matter is resolved.  Those that go through this process usually come out the other side feeling very positive and able to work well with their husband and wife.  It is not for everyone because if an agreement cannot be reached and court proceedings are required, they each have to start again and instruct different lawyers.

What if we can’t agree?

If you cannot agree and prefer not to go to court an arbitrator can be appointed. The arbitrator’s decision will be final and binding. It is also possible to use arbitration to deal with just a single issue if everything else is agreed.  Both parties have to agree to the appointment of the arbitrator and the arbitrators fees have to be met by the parties.  However, it can be much quicker and more focussed than court proceedings and therefore more cost efficient overall.

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